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Essay写作如何做到降重优化?

文章来源:原创  文章作者:Australiaway  发布时间:2019/08/22  浏览次数: 次  字数:6768 字  文章关键词:essay写作

文章导读:今天要说到让无数人恨得要死、为了降重改的哭天喊地的Paraphrase。毕竟引用不是打两个引号复制粘贴就能凑字数完事的,无论国内外,都有查重率这个大敌在等着你。想要引用别人的论...
  今天要说到让无数人恨得要死、为了降重改的哭天喊地的“Paraphrase”。毕竟引用不是打两个引号复制粘贴就能凑字数完事的,无论国内外,都有查重率这个大敌在等着你。想要引用别人的论点论据,就少不了需要用自己的语言进行整理,不然就是在“抄袭”!在学术论文是绝对零容忍的!一定要注意!可是,是不是对这个用不重复的语言表达出同样的内涵这种高难度的操作咬牙切齿?尤其,掐指一算,目前为毕业论文想办法改改改的同学,八成正在为此发愁。把一段话重新表述,看上去简单做起来难,尤其又不能漏过重要信息。复述这个活,不是那么好干。怎么复述,依旧是有要点和技巧的,也就是想要尽可能的降低抄袭率还是有套路滴。这次我们就结合几个例子,一起来看看Essay写作中如何正确的进行改写降重。
essay proofreading
Essay修改润色
 
  事先说明案例较多内容相对枯燥,但,仅花15分钟就可以掌握正确的改写技巧,是不是很划算呢?新生老手都可以看看学学哦~那么现在,开始正文!
 

  Paraphrase的基本要点

 
  1、引用并不是仅仅改变几个单词,或者调整一下顺序就是了。这里有一个必要的前提,就是用“自己的话”表述!用自己的话,就难免带上自己的文章的“理解”。毕竟“引用”“引用”就是引别人的东西化为己用。没有这个化为己用的过程,就是难免就会显得“消化不良”。如果文章里东一句西一句,每个引用都带着别的作者的文风,文章就会变成一篇“懒婆娘的裹脚布——又臭又长”,当然重复率也会是一片通红。
 
  2、其次,paraphrase和summary还是有差别的。
 
  paraphrase和summary确实是比较像,因为都是在用自己的话去描述一个resource的内容。但是,实质上,差之毫厘却谬之千里。paraphrase也可以说是rewording,rephrasing,rewriting,rendition,必须把引用的resource的关键要点和主要论点都囊括,通常paraphrase会包含详细的信息,在长度上经常会跟引用的source段落一样长,甚至更长。summary可能就只会摘要文章的简单概括,三言两语总结清楚就可以,所以会比原来的source短很多。无论是哪一种,都要做到:不曲解原意,客观严谨地表达。You can’t leave out words or add words to make the source fit into your paper if it changes the meaning.
 
  3、还有一个写作时候的小建议,如果需要引用文献,一定要在自己理解的基础上进行引用,知其意而用之。如果你并不理解文意,只是为了“引用”而“引用”,很容易闹出笑话来。
 
  4、下一步是在你要引用的source里面找到合适的需要引用的段落。因为你不可以rewrite全篇的文献(不然就是全篇抄袭了),而且通常来说,一次也不要引用超过一个段落以上的内容。
 
  5、最后,引用完了自己再仔细读一下自己的文章,读不读得通。有可能技术水平不过关引用完了自己都看不懂了,万一读不通,可要注意及时修改。有时候看的文献多了,隔几天再检查的时候都会忘记,“天呐,我还引用过这个文献吗?”
 
  下面来看具体例子啦:
 

  举例一:“Police:Man breaks into Austin meat business,naps”

 
  注意按照规定的Reference格式要求注明引用来源:
 
  原文:
 
  “AUSTIN,Texas(AP)—Police have arrested a 28-year-old man who they say broke into an Austin business,stole a couple of sausages and fell asleep.”
 
  “德克萨斯州,奥斯汀市(美联社)-警方逮捕了一名28岁的男子,这名男子闯入奥斯汀市的一家店,偷了几根香肠,然后竟然睡着了。”
 
  错误示例:
 
  A 28-year-old man in Austin,Texas didn’t break into a business and run,like most criminals.Instead,he took several sausages then simply fell asleep inside the business.
 
  没有注明参考来源。
 
  正确示范:
 
  A 28 year old man in Austin,Texas didn’t break into a business and run,like most criminals.Instead,he took several sausages then simply fell asleep inside the business(“Police:Man breaks into Austin meat business,sleeps”).
 
  德克萨斯州奥斯汀的一名28岁男子并没有像大多数罪犯那样犯案后就逃跑。相反,他只偷了几根香肠,而且竟然在作案现场睡了(“警察:男子闯入奥斯汀肉店后,睡了”)。
 
  这段引用是按照MLA引用格式。ps:这个只是简单的新闻语音,只是为了大家方便理解,学术语言的表达有时候更需要paraphrase的技术含量,大家今后可要多多练习。
 

  举例二:“Police:Man fled crash to avoid yelling girlfriend”

 
  不要照着原句改动几个单词了事,Paraphrase不是原句照搬。
 
  原文:
 
  “VINELAND,N.J.(AP)—Police in New Jersey say a man told officers he fled the scene of an auto accident because he‘didn’t want to deal with his girlfriend yelling at him.’”
 
  “新泽西州VINELAND(美联社)-新泽西警方称,一名男子告诉警员,他逃离了车祸现场,因为”女友一直吵闹他不知道该怎么办。“
 
  错误示例:
 
  New Jersey police state a man said he left the scene of a car accident because he didn’t want to deal with his girlfriend yelling at him(“Police:Man fled crash to avoid yelling girlfriend”).
 
  这个引用基本就是在原文的基础上改了几个单词,把say改成state,但是大多数单词和句子结构都太接近原文了。
 
  正确示范:
 
  A man in New Jersey seemed to think leaving the scene of a car crash and being arrested was a better option than listening to his girlfriend yell.He told the police he fled because he didn’t want to listen to her yell at him(“Police:Man fled crash to avoid yelling girlfriend”).
 
  新泽西州的一名男子似乎认为只要不被女友叫喊纠缠就算肇事逃逸被捕也是更好的选择。他告诉警方,他逃离是因为他不想听女友一直喊叫(“警察:男子为逃避喊叫的女友而选择肇事逃逸”)
 

  举例三:Plumber Caught Dancing On The Job Has All The Fly Moves.

 
  有时候甚至有必要在原文基础上进行延伸。记住不能遗漏关键要点和细节。
 
  原文:
 
  “The video of Topen’s dancing has racked up more than 400,000 views since it was posted on YouTube last week,and the plumber says he’s already been approached in public for his autograph.”
 
  “自从上周在YouTube发布视频后,Topen的舞蹈视频已播放超过40万次,这名水管工表示公众场合已经有人找他要签名了。”
 
  错误示例:
 
  The video has racked up more than 400,000 views since posted on YouTube last week,and the plumber has even been approached for his autograph.
 
  没有引用参考文献,和原句措辞结构上都太相似。
 
  正确示范:
 
  Even though the YouTube video of the dancing plumber was only posted last week,it has already had more than 400,000 views.Topen has become an almost instant celebrity as strangers have even asked him for autographs(“Plumber Caught Dancing On The Job Has All The Fly Moves”).
 
  尽管水管工的YouTube舞蹈视频上周才发布,但它已经有超过40万的观看次数。Topen几乎一夜成名,因为甚至有陌生人找他签名(“管道工被抓拍到在工作中跳各种舞蹈动作”)。
 

  举例四:These Are Miley Cyrus’Crazy Dating Rules.

 
  转述不是乱说也不是摘要,必须不偏离原意,同时也不要遗漏任何关键。
 
  原文:
 
  “According to Heat magazine,Miley has a list of intense rules for her men-to-be while out on dates.Apparently her assistant arranges what the guy must wear,do,and talk about on the date.She’s also not into flowers,so he’s banned from bringing her those.”
 
  “据”热火“杂志报道,麦莉在约会时列出了一系列关于她的男朋友要遵守的详细细则。显然,她的助手会安排这个家伙必须穿什么,做什么,并在约会时谈论什么。她也不喜欢花,所以她男票也被禁止带花给她。“
 
  错误示例:
 
  According to Heat magazine,Miley Cyrus has a list of rules for her men on dates.Her assistant arranges what guys wear and what they talk about.She doesn’t like flowers,either(“These Are Miley Cyrus’Crazy Dating Rules”).
 
  这甚至算不上意译。它遗漏了几个关键字。请记住,paraphrase必须提供与原文相同的信息,并且一定要用自己的话表述。
 
  正确示范:
 
  As stated in Heat magazine,Miley Cyrus has a number of bizarre rules for dating.She’s so specific about what her dates wear,say,and do,that she has her assistant enforce these rules on dates.Cyrus doesn’t even like flowers and won’t let her dates buy them for her(“These Are Miley Cyrus’Crazy Dating Rules”).
 
  正如《热火》杂志所述,米莉·赛勒斯有许多奇怪的约会规则。她对约会对象穿什么、说什么、做什么都很明确的要求,以至于让她的助手在约会时执行这些规则。赛勒斯甚至不喜欢花,也不让她的约会对象为她买花(“这是麦莉赛勒斯疯狂的约会规则”)。
 

  举例五:Top 12 Bizarre Pet Accidents.

 
  注意细节,Paraphrase不是摘要,要客观的进行复述,包括细节!
 
  原文:
 
  “Often,a dog will chase an animal with the focus of a heat-seeking missile.But a wheelbarrow planter was not part of Belgian sheepdog Rider’s focus.Rider collided with the wheelbarrow while the squirrel escaped up a cedar tree in Joyce Biethan’s backyard.
 
  “He’s kind of an all-or-nothing dog and he went into‘all,'”Biethan said.“He chased after that squirrel with total disregard of what might be in front of him.”
 
  His collision left Rider with a broken scapula,a broken rib and a punctured lung.
 
  “He was in so much pain that I think he just tried to lay low,”Biethan said.“He prescribed himself bedrest.”
 
  Biethan said Rider did not need surgery and made a full recovery.”
 
  错误示例:
 
  A dog named Rider ran into a wheelbarrow but didn’t need surgery(“Top 12 Bizarre Pet Accidents”).
 
  Can you guess what’s missing from this paraphrase?Details!
 
  The example does paraphrase some information,but it reads more like a summary,as it’s missing key details from the story.
 
  这更像是摘要而不是paraphrase,因为缺少关键细节。
 
  正确示范:
 
  Like many dogs,a Belgian sheepdog named Rider became so focused on chasing down a squirrel that he paid no attention to the wheelbarrow directly in front of him.The squirrel got away,but Rider collided head on with the wheelbarrow.Rider broke his scapula,broke a rib,and also punctured a lung.Though he was likely in a lot of pain,he only needed rest.He did not have to have surgery”(“Top 12 Bizarre Pet Accidents”).
 
  像许多狗一样,一只名叫Rider的比利时牧羊犬变得如此专注于追捕一只松鼠,以至于他没有注意到在他前面的独轮车。松鼠逃走了,但Rider与手推车正面相撞。Rider的肩胛骨骨折,肋骨骨折,肺部也被刺穿。虽然它可能很痛苦,但Rider只需要休息,不必动手术。(”12个奇怪的宠物事故“)
 
  最后总结
 
  什么是好的Paraphrase?
 
  1、包括引用原文的关键点和重点
 
  2、用你自己的话表达,并使用你自己的句子结构
 
  3、重点是在其意不在其形

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