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文章来源:网络整理  文章作者:Australiaway论文网  发布时间:2019-02-26 17:02:11   浏览次数: 次  字数:13357 字  文章关键词:assignment代写

文章导读:下面为大家整理一篇优秀的 assignment代写 范文-Applications of Business Anthropology,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了工商人类学。如今,工商人类学已经被应用于各个领域,人类学家和人类...
  下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文-Applications of Business Anthropology,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了工商人类学。如今,工商人类学已经被应用于各个领域,人类学家和人类学的方法可以帮助商业人士更好地了解他们的员工和消费者。因此,企业可以为自己制定更好的商业战略,设计更好的商品,同时为客户提供许多先进的技术支持。
  Introduction of Anthropology
  Anthropology is the study that doing researches on human begin from the biological and cultural views,it seems like the social and behavioral science.The main purpose is getting better understanding of human being,human becoming and human knowing.As the major of studying social science,anthropology does research in the areas of society and culture,and also studies the emotions,the responses,the behaviors from different people in different situations.By doing researches on people's behaviors and different changing of life from the past to present,the study of anthropology needs to take biological,social and physical sciences into consideration.Hence,there are various type of anthropological study,such as sociocultural anthropology,physical anthropology,linguistic anthropology.The anthropological study were also expanded in many other areas,such as medical anthropology and business anthropology.[1]
  Anthropologic Methodologies
  The anthropologic methodologies could be concluded as the fieldwork methods and different types of analysis.Fieldwork also can be called as field research,the researchers are required to doing the case study in the field by themselves to collect data,interview local people and be the part in the society to understand the culture.Fieldwork methods include participant observation,ethnographic method,comparative method and reflexivity.Analysis methods include qualitative analysis,quantitative analysis,positivist approach and ethnographic analysis.The common methodologies that generally be utilized are participant observation and qualitative analysis.
  Participant observation is utilized to collect first-hand data.This method asks anthropologist participate in the research to be the part in the social event to understand the behaviors of people and the culture of the society.Qualitative analysis is doing the analysis after obtaining the information.It is different from the quantitative analysis,which analyze complicated data in the surveys to calculate the percentage or possibility.Qualitative analysis is seems like the in-depth research that studying reasons of happening,and gets understanding of why people doing the thing and how it happen.[2]
  Business Anthropology
  Business anthropology assists business people to obtain a more extensive understanding of business administration and their clients.Ann Jordan published the book which named Business Anthropology in 2003,and indicated that the business anthropology was established as the discipline formally.[3]
  For anthropologist,business management is not only the social phenomenon,but also the cultural phenomenon.Meanwhile,doing research in cultural areas is considerable essential to anthropologist.All the behaviors of human beings equal to the relationships between people.On the other side,the business management contains the personal thinking,viewpoints,emotions and behaviors.The personalized characters are not easy to be decided or quantized,participant observation and qualitative analysis,which are anthropologic methodologies could help business owners to solve the problems,and enhance the insights and make better decisions at the same time.
  Application of Business Anthropology
  The business anthropology has been applied in various fields,anthropologists and anthropologic methodologies assist business people to obtain better understanding of their employees and consumers.Therefore,enterprises could make better business strategy for themselves,design better merchandises and improve much advanced technological skills for the clients at the same time.Diverse application of business anthropology would be discussed as the following.
  Application of Making Strategy
  In the viewpoint of anthropologist,the business organization is not only the group which obtain profits,but also the organization that contains different culture and behaviors.Anthropologists take the company to be the cultural group which constitutes from diverse people,and they are good at revealing and explaining the influences of business strategy and operational mode.Based on the speciality of anthropologist,the anthropological application could be utilized in planning and improving business strategy.Anthropologist Edward Sapir invented the interactive mode of politic,economy,culture,natural environment and business behaviors.[4]The mode could be help company to understand how to use the different resources and the relationships between these components,so that the company has the ability to find the best way to develop much better.In addition,enterprises hire anthropologists to participate into the process of making business strategy,anthropologists could participate the whole procedure from collecting data to the end of making plans by themselves.They could plan the business strategy comprehensively from different viewpoint according to the result of participant observation.According to doing research in the different situations during different periods,anthropologists could make suitable goals for each stages,and also make the specific measures to achieve the goals at the same time.
  Application of Human Resource
  The application of anthropology could be used into human resources in the business,since that employees have diverse personalities,so that business owners need to have different strategies to different people.Anthropologist could help companies to do the targeting researches and make strategies,such as surveying the satisfaction of employees,optimizing the internal organization and making training plans.
  For example,Xerox hired anthropologist to design the training for employees in the company.Anthropologist received the training like other employees after taking the work.In order to know different problems from different consumers,and different situations that employees would be faced,anthropologist listened and answered the service calls by themselves.From doing this research,teaching consumers that how to copiers is significant,since that a lot of problems from the service calls were not skillful,many of consumers just had no idea about how to operate the copiers.This result was leaded from the conclusion by utilizing participant observation methodology,it benefited Xerox to solve problems more efficiently,improved the relationship between company and clients,and also helped to train employees with targeting content.[5]
  Application of Consumer Research
  The qualitative research has been applied in studying consumer behaviors,the purpose is to research the real life style of people,and the reasons of making decision.The goal of selling process includes of setting targeting clients and selling the appropriate merchandises for them.Therefore,anthropologist has the ability to do the research of knowing the demands of specific consumers and the service experience of them by applying participant observation,and helps enterprises to provide suitable products and services for different consumers by doing qualitative research.
  For instance,Victor Barac,who is the anthropology professor in the University of Toronto,he had the experience to corporate with an insurance company.He found that the advertising of this company was outdated,and the image of the TV show were not familiar with the young generation.Victor Barac helped to update the advertising strategy and keep an important client for the company.He said that the management has the ability to deal with technical solutions,while the anthropologist provides the cultural context.In this case,the image was not fitting to the company at that time.In another case,Victor Barac corporate with the Canadian film industry.This task needed to hang around in the cinema and observe the whole process of people's behaviors from the food court to the posters,which drew their attention.Then interviewed people about the experiences and the attitudes of service.[6]Based on the directly information from the customers,this research could benefit cinema to improve much better to satisfy customers,such as paying much attention the service of food court,the customer service quality,even the image of posters.
  Furthermore,the analytical method of anthropology has been utilized in the field of market research more frequently,such as doing researches of the cultural trend,the attitude of customers,and the life style of people.According to the result of anthropological researches,business people could obtain the real and valuable information of customers directly,and they could improve the products,the technologies and the service to meet demands of clients.For example,Whirlpool Corporation invited the expert who focuses on studying the internal organization of anthropology to do the case study of luxury bathtub.The method was used of doing qualitative research without data analysis,which equals to doing analysis of true feelings of consumers.During this case study,anthropologist observed the whole process of using the product by a consumer.Based on the 15 samples of 15 families,the analysis methods included observed and interviewed participants(they were wearing bathing suits during the observation),the questions were about the impression of the bathtub,the imagines coming to mind when using the bathtub and consideration of purchase the bathtub or not.Based on the replies of interviewees,Whirlpool Corporation made the classification of bathtubs,even updated the definition for luxury bathtub.[7]Since that this research was done in the participants'home,and the company indeed accepted advices,so that the research motivated the passion of consumers to purchase.
  Application of Product Design
  Anthropologists participate the field of design to aim at developing better products and technologies to satisfy users.Geert Hofstede,the famous anthropologist who presented the theory of five cultural dimensions.Each dimension has the respective quantitative criteria,the standards are applied to measure the different customs or cultures from different people.[8]The results could provide useful suggestions to companies to design products or improve the technological skills.
  In order to assist enterprise to design the new merchandises,anthropologist Geoffrey Robinson and his colleagues to define the process of consuming behavior by utilizing the participant observation and the anthropological analysis.They observe the activities of people instead of asking questions,according to the ethnographic methodology,they helped to design a new over-the-counter(OTC)medicine,helped to develop the new platform truck,helped Jansport brand to show the backpacks in the better display way in the store,and also helped Frito-Lay to analyze market optimally.[9]
  Take another example of Xerox,Xerox hired Lucy Suchman who graduated from the anthropology major.Lucy Suchman worked in the center of innovative intelligent systems where had the desire to establish system to assist people to user complex copiers.By putting herself into the participant observation,she realized that people had a terrible experience when did the copy work.Therefore,she had the idea of using the single green button for people to do the uncomplicated copy works.[10]
  For enterprise of selling toothpaste,the business people always focus on the effect of anticavity and tooth whitening.However,anthropologist found that consumers have changed the viewpoint of toothpaste by anthropological analysis,people pay much attention on the feeling of putting toothpaste and toothbrush in the mouth,rather than the effect of cleaning teeth.Hence,anthropological methodology could get better understanding of consumers'behaviors and thinking.The real power of using anthropological methodology could be reflected in the preliminary stage of product development,it could benefit business owners to design products that meet consumers'requirements.
  Application of Intercultural Management
  With the rapid development of science and technology,more and more enterprises faced the situation of intercultural management.As a business man,it is significant to master domestic culture,while knowing the culture across borders is much more important nowadays.The difference between diverse cultures from different countries are representing as more than one language,religion and culture,the difference may lead the impertinent behaviors,even the wrong decisions.[11]Anthropologist has the ability to understand and analyze the various cultures,and provide solutions to deal with different issues.Ethnographic studies could show the cultural patterns for business area.Dr.Kathy Rudkin and Dr.Hemant Deo of Wollongong University of Australia claimed that ethnographic methodology would be valuable for business field.First of all,the method could help people to realize the cultural meaning when put the researcher in the real situation.On the other side,researcher could get the data directly and satisfy the demands for business service.[9]Furthermore,anthropologists are experts for team working with other disciplines.Therefore,the ethnographic methodology could be applied in the intercultural situations for the global business management.

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