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文章来源:网络整理  文章作者:Australiaway论文网  发布时间:2019-04-16 11:19:37   浏览次数: 次  字数:19834 字  文章关键词:essay代写

文章导读:下面Australiaway为大家整理一篇优秀的 essay代写 范文- The administration of an American university,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国大学的行政管理。美国各大学的行政管理架构虽然各有特...
  下面Australiaway为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The administration of an American university,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国大学的行政管理。美国各大学的行政管理架构虽然各有特色,但其基本管理模式还是有相似性。其管理架构一般分别是由立法机构、行政机构和司法机构组成,三方相互协作、相互牵制共同管理大学的建设与发展。
  The United States is a federal country with highly developed technology and education. Although the federal government of the United States has the ministry of education, its management function and role is very limited. There is no complete national education management system in the United States. The morrill act of 1862 established the responsibility of the state government in the form of legislation. In the United States, state governments usually manage and coordinate various universities in their regions through organizations such as education coordination committee, but the relationship between state governments and universities is not between leaders and led. The constitution of the United States legally endows each state with the legislative power and management power of education, and each state can make its own education development strategy and education goal according to the actual situation, allocate funds to the universities within its jurisdiction and supervise the education quality.
  In recent years, out of the recognition of the importance of higher education, the federal government of the United States is skillfully using a set of adjustment mechanism to integrate the higher education policies of the federal government into universities, so as to promote the participation of universities in national construction and scientific research by establishing some relations with universities. The main ways of regulation are as follows: to make the education responsibility of state government clear through legislation; To entrust universities to manage national laboratories and major scientific research projects in the form of "contract", so as to make university scientific research develop in the direction needed by the country; Improve the enrollment rate of higher education, ensure the quality of teaching, and give the right of education to the educated; Increase funding for research and introduce competition to ensure that federal funding for research and development is used effectively. At the same time, the reform and development of higher education in each state were supported by economic means. The United States federal government has established a number of research funds and various types of student scholarships, through the research project grants to support the university scientific research work, through the scholarship to guide young people to the federal government required professional talent. Public universities in the United States are mainly funded by education grants from the state governments and self-raised funds from the schools, part of which comes from tuition fees, while scientific research funds are mainly controlled by professors from colleges and universities, and the schools mainly provide financial management services of scientific research funds.
  Through the field investigation and exchange of many universities such as Maryland in the United States, we know that although the administrative structures of American universities have their own characteristics, their basic management modes are still similar. Generally, its management structure is composed of legislative body, administrative body and judicial body. The three parties have their own division of labor to coordinate and contain the construction and development of the university.
  The organizational framework of American universities is composed of the university board of directors, the university council, the dean's committee and the President's advisory committee. The university board is the most important. In the organization of American universities, there is also a very special management mode -- university system, that is, several or more universities in the state form a university consortium, and the presidents of the universities in the consortium form the board of directors of the university system. The chairman of the board of directors of the university system is usually a well-known scholar or social figure. The board of directors of the university system is an institution with certain administrative authority, which has decision-making power over the financial budget, strategic development, appointment of principals, investment of large projects, tuition standard formulation, and coordination of standards and issues among universities within the system. The university of Maryland is the flagship university of the university consortium system in Maryland.
  The chairman of the board of public universities is appointed by the state government. Other members include representatives of the public, presidents, alumni, public figures, non-faculty members and students. The university board of trustees is responsible for addressing strategic, budgetary, and managerial policy issues or decisions that will have a significant impact on the university, such as the university's financial budget, university property management, and student fees. The university board of trustees comprises a number of committees, including standing committees on human resources and compensation, community and government affairs, and audit and investment.
  The university council is chaired by the President of the university and consists of university administrators, faculty representatives, representatives of non-academic staff and student representatives. The council is responsible for academic affairs, student affairs, the appointment of department heads and the appointment of faculty members and senior administrators. The university council consists of academic planning committee, facilities development committee, learning environment committee, academic standards committee, university teaching award committee and other committees.
  The President, the President of the student union, the President of the graduate union, the representative of undergraduate students, the representative of non-teaching staff, and the representative of teaching staff may all serve as members of multiple committees at the same time. Important decisions of the council are approved by the university board of trustees, which provides the agenda of the university board.
  The executive management of American universities, including the President, the executive vice President concurrently in charge of academic affairs, and the vice President in charge of research, public relations, finance and administration, and facilities, as well as the President and the department head. The President shall be appointed by the board of directors and shall be responsible to the board of directors. He shall have the right to manage and direct all the affairs of the school and other rights and obligations granted by the board of directors. The President may entrust his rights and obligations to the right person in written form and specify the conditions for the exercise of the entrusted rights and obligations. The rights and responsibilities of vice-chancellors are appointed by the board of directors on the recommendation of the President. The vice-chancellor is responsible to and reports to the President. The dean of the college is usually appointed by the President of the university, and the dean of the department is appointed by the dean of the college.
  From the brief introduction of the administrative organization structure of American universities, it can be seen that the administrative organization of American universities has the following characteristics in its operation process:
  In the process of setting up institutions, American universities have made clear provisions on the responsibilities of presidents and the duties of various committees. For example, if one of the duties of the board of directors is to recruit the President, then it authorizes the President to manage the university. If the President does something badly, the board of directors will not exercise its administrative power on behalf of the President. Instead, they will rehire the right President to run the university. The same is true of the relationship between the President and the vice President, vice President and dean, and dean and dean
  In American universities, faculty representatives participate in the work of the school board of directors, attend the school board meetings, and they are also an important force in the school board. In addition, teachers have a role to play in university administration through various committees. Similarly, students are important participants in school management. Students have the right to express their opinions on school affairs, whether it is the setting of majors or the raising of tuition fees. Top management, especially the vice President in charge of academic affairs, attaches great importance to the relationship with students, and sometimes even leads students to go to government departments to negotiate tuition fees and other issues. In addition, the work of the student union and graduate union has been greatly supported by the university, making it the most powerful student organization in American universities.
  These professional committees in universities, on the one hand, help pool professionals who are good at certain kinds of affairs to assist the President in managing the university; on the other hand, they can improve the efficiency of university work. The university submits special matters to the council, which handles the general affairs of the university. Moreover, there is not a direct leadership relationship between the administrative personnel and the committees at all levels, which is conducive to the more objective and fair opinions put forward by the committees. The personal management authority of the administrative personnel is limited, so as to ensure the open, fair and just implementation of university management affairs.
  The administrative affairs of American universities focus on the college level, and the dean of the college has great power. The colleges of American universities, including the university of Maryland, are relatively independent. Many matters of the college, including project management, allocation and use of funds, appointment and evaluation of teachers, specialty and curriculum setting, are decided by the college according to the opinions of the committee of professors. The President is responsible to the President, who grants the President great autonomy and implements the annual target management to the President.
  American universities attach great importance to the selection of university presidents, and each university President has its own selection process. Generally, universities will release the recruitment information to the world, and experts and scholars from all over the world are welcome to apply for the university President of the university. At the same time, the university will send out invitations to some people who they think are more suitable, and some intermediary organizations will help the university to find the most ideal person to serve as the President. The board of directors of the university's main job is to find a person who is the most suitable for as President of the university, therefore, under the leadership of the board in the university, the university will set up a special President election committee, committee members are often more than 100 people, including professors, students, staff, government representatives, school board members, community representatives, business people, and so on. The selection process for vice-chancellors is very rigorous and standardized. The vice-chancellors are assessed by various professional committees and have to make several reports to apply for the position. At the same time, there are many opportunities for the vice-chancellors to understand the basic situation of the university and to contact various people in the university.
  In the United States, the President of a university is the symbol of a school. There are many decisions that do not need to be decided by the President. The executive departments or colleges do not need to seek the President's approval or approval for matters within their functions and powers, but can make decisions and implement them by themselves. In American universities, the most powerful person is the dean of the college. Because the college of American universities is relatively independent, many affairs of the college, including project management, allocation and use of funds, recruitment of professors and managers, are decided by the dean. The dean is the executive director of the college, but the specific affairs of the college are mainly carried out by the deputy dean in charge. The power of American universities is devolved to the colleges, which make decisions and carry out their own actions without reporting to the President of the university. American universities have a set of very detailed and standardized management system, through which the President of a university can handle his own affairs with confidence. If a dean fails to do his or her job or fails to manage the college well, there is a risk that he or she will be dismissed.
  The President of a university in the United States is mainly responsible for implementing the strategic decisions and development plans of the university board of directors, and may submit to the board of directors major issues that he thinks should be studied and decided by the university board of directors. The university President is responsible for leading and presiding over the work of the university council. The President of the university is the chief executive of the university and is responsible for all the affairs of the university. The vice-chancellor of the university has the powers, duties and duties conferred by the university board upon the proposal of the President.
  Some American universities have the post of executive vice President, whose power and responsibility are obviously higher than other vice presidents. Its powers are those conferred by the university board at the suggestion of the President. The President is not in the school, the executive vice President is the representative of the school. In general, other vice-chancellors often communicate with the executive vice-chancellors about school affairs. The school department work meetings are usually presided over by the executive vice President, so many departments are under the leadership of the executive vice President in terms of discipline construction, teaching management, personnel recruitment and evaluation, and have the right to evaluate the work of these colleges or departments. The President, of course, has the power to change any decision made by the vice President, but that's rarely the case at American universities.
  Each university in the United States has the post of vice President, the specific number of positions decided by the university board of directors. In general, the university will set up vice-chancellors to manage international affairs, teaching, scientific research, financial administration, general affairs operation and external liaison. The vice-presidents shall assume the administrative responsibilities and exercise the administrative powers within the scope of their respective responsibilities.
  According to the education act of the state government of the United States, the President of a university is the highest executive officer of the university and has the power to manage and make decisions on university affairs. The President of a university is the executor of the development strategy, major affairs, teaching management, discipline construction and scientific research.
  University presidents in the United States are usually appointed by university boards. Most of the members of the board of directors of public universities in the United States are appointed by the government. Although the majority of the members of the university board are appointed by the government, the university board has an important responsibility to ensure the independent operation of the university without government intervention. At the same time, the President of the university shall serve as the chairman of the university council and comprehensively lead the work of the council. Many of the university's administrative work may be discussed and decisions made in the council, and some decisions need to be reported to the university board of directors for approval. Therefore, the university President should be able to maintain good communication with the members of the university board of directors so that they can fully support the university's work. The university board of directors controls the development of the university from a macro perspective, while the university council studies and decides the administrative affairs of the university in a more specific way. The council of the university comprises a number of professional affairs committees which carry out the decisions of the council. At the same time, it also collects and collates relevant project data for the school council's research and use.
  Rector of the university in the United States have considerable management and decision-making, while, the power of the rector of the university from the university of the authorization of the board of directors, many of the university of important decision requires the approval of the board of directors, university and the university President could lead to the university to a large extent the members of the board of directors to support management and innovation of university presidents, and, at the university of the board of directors generally support the university President job very much. Because, the university President is a highly professional background of top managers, is for the subject construction and development of the university he will have a more mature thinking, and the development of the university President about how to from a strategic height to manage the university will be innovative, if there is no development and progress, the university rector of the university is unable to stay in school, the university board chose the right person to serve as the President of the university of the job.
  Due to the origin of the American university is developed by the private universities, therefore, to raise its always is one of the main work of the university, especially in recent years, as the state to university funding is limited, with increasingly fierce competition of global science and technology, this makes the rector of the university in the United States more need to transfer work center of gravity to give priority to with foreign exchange funds for work.
  On the whole, American university management system, on the one hand, attaches equal importance to academic power and administrative power; on the other hand, academic power and administrative power are separated from each other. The division of administrative management in American universities is relatively clear, and its mode of administrative management is dominated by the vertical administrative teams of each vice President. Each vertical administrative team handles its own business within the scope of its mandate. Each vice principal's vertical management team can directly communicate with other vertical management teams and carry out work. This vertical management team, which is directly led by each vice principal, has clear responsibilities and high work efficiency. The basis of the administrative management of a university is the work plan and school calendar of each department in advance. Any work that is not in the scope of the plan is difficult to carry out.

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